telling a person now what is likely to happen in the future because of having a disease.


a condition that some women with diabetes have during the late stages of pregnancy. Two signs of this condition are high blood pressure and swelling because the body cells are holding extra water.

polyunsaturated fats

a type of fat that comes from vegetables.


peak action

the time period when the effect of something is as strong as it can be such as when insulin in having the most effect on lowering the glucose (sugar) in the blood.



inflammation (pain, tenderness) of the pancreas; it can make the pancreas stop working. It is caused by drinking too much alcohol, by disease in the gallbladder, or by a virus.




1. One of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk, dairy products, eggs, and dried beans. 2. Proteins are also used in the body for cell structure, hormones such as insulin, and other functions.


premixed insulin

a commercially produced combination of two different types of insulin. See 50/50 insulin, 70/30 insulin and 75/25 insulin.

preprandial blood glucose


the blood glucose level taken before eating.

proliferative retinopathy

(pro-LIH-fur-ah-tiv REH-tih-NOP-uh-thee):

a condition in which fragile new blood vessels grow along the retina and in the vitreous humor of the eye.



a man-made substitute for a missing body part such as an arm or a leg.



the presence of protein in the urine, indicating that the kidneys are not working properly.


see insulin pump.



excessive urination; may be a sign of diabetes.


a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke. Other names for prediabetes are impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.


see acarbose


see repaglinide.

postprandial blood glucose


the blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after eating.



a health care professional who prepares and distributes medicine to people. Pharmacists also give information on medicines.


pancreas transplantation

a surgical procedure to take a healthy whole or partial pancreas from a donor and place it into a person with diabetes.

pediatric endocrinologist

(pee-dee-AT-rik en-doh-krih-NAH-luh-jist):

a doctor who treats children who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes



a health care professional who specializes in fitting shoes for people with disabilities or deformities. A pedorthist can custom-make shoes or orthotics (special inserts for shoes).

periodontal disease


disease of the gums.



a dentist who specializes in treating people who have gum diseases.

peripheral neuropathy

(puh-RIF-uh-rul ne-ROP-uh-thee):

nerve damage that affects the feet, legs, or hands. Peripheral neuropathy causes pain, numbness, or a tingling feeling.

peripheral vascular disease

(puh-RIF-uh-rul VAS-kyoo-ler) (PVD):

a disease of the large blood vessels of the arms, legs, and feet. PVD may occur when major blood vessels in these areas are blocked and do not receive enough blood. The signs of PVD are aching pains and slow-healing foot sores.

peritoneal dialysis

see dialysis.



a treatment for diabetic retinopathy. A strong beam of light (laser) is used to seal off bleeding blood vessels in the eye and to burn away extra blood vessels that should not have grown there.



an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Actos.)



a doctor who treats people who have foot problems. Podiatrists also help people keep their feet healthy by providing regular foot examinations and treatment.




the care and treatment of feet.

point system

a meal planning system that uses points to rate the caloric content of foods.



excessive thirst; may be a sign of diabetes.



excessive hunger; may be a sign of diabetes.



an organ that makes insulin and enzymes for digestion. The pancreas is located behind the lower part of the stomach and is about the size of a hand.