a basic unit of heredity. Genes are made of DNA, a substance that tells cells what to do and when do do it. The information in the genes is passed from the parent to child-for example, a gene might tell some cells to make the hair red or the eyes brown.
the length of a pregnancy.
the effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.
very-long-acting insulin. On average, glargine insulin starts to lower blood glucose levels within 1 hour after injection and keeps working evenly for 24 hours after injection.
an increase in fluid pressure inside the eye that may lead to loss of vision.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Amaryl).
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.)
glomerular filtration rate
measure of the kidney`s ability to filter and remove waste products.
plural of glomerulus.
a tiny set of looping blood vessels in the kidney where the blood is filtered and waste products are removed.
a hormone produced by the alpha cells in the pancreas. It raises blood glucose. An injectable form of glucagon, available by prescription, may be used to treat severe hypoglycemia.
Glucophage, Glucophage XR
glucose, or commonly referred to as blood sugar, is the form of energy circulating in the blood stream. Blood glucose is the end result of digestion, absorption and metabolism of food.
chewable tablets made of pure glucose used for treating hypoglycemia.
glucose tolerance test
Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand names: DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase; ingredient in Glucovance.)
a unit of weight in the metric system. An ounce equals 28 grams. In some meal plans for people with diabetes, the suggested amounts of food are given in grams.
the death of body tissue, most often caused by a lack of blood flow and infection. It can lead to amputation.
a form of neuropathy that affects the stomach. Digestion of food may be incomplete or delayed, resulting in nausea, vomiting, or bloating, making blood glucose control difficult.
gestational diabetes mellitus
(jes-TAY-shun-ul MELL-ih-tus) (GDM):
a type of diabetes mellitus that develops only during pregnancy and usually disappears upon delivery, but increases the risk that the mother will develop diabetes later. GDM is managed with meal planning, activity, and, in some cases, insulin.
Reported rates of gestational diabetes range from 2 to 10 percent of pregnancies. Five-10 percent of women with gestational diabetes are found to have type 2 diabetes immediately after birth. Women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35 -60 percent chance of developing diabetes in the next 10-20 years. .
New diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes will increase the proportion of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. It is estimated that 18 percent of all pregnancies are affected by gestational diabetes.
a condition of the gums characterized by inflammation and bleeding.