emergency medical identification

cards, bracelets, or necklaces with a written message used by people with diabetes or other medical problems to alert others in case of a medical emergency such as a coma.



grown or made inside the body. Insulin made by a person’s own pancreas is endogenous insulin. Insulin that is made from beef or pork pancreas or derived from bacteria is exogenous because it comes from outside the body and must be injected.



grown or made outside the body; for instance, insulin made from pork or beef pancreas is exogenous insulin for people.




swelling caused by excess fluid in the body.



(ee-LEK-troh-my-AH-gruh-fee) (EMG):

a test used to detect nerve function. It measures the electrical activity generated by muscles.




endocrine gland


a group of specialized cells that release hormones into the blood. For example, the islets in the pancreas, which secrete insulin, are endocrine glands.



a doctor who treats people who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.


end-stage renal disease


see kidney failure.



protein made by the body that brings about a chemical reaction, for example, the enzymes produced by the gut to aid digestion.

erectile dysfunction

see impotence.



a normal level of glucose in the blood.

exchange lists

one of several approaches for diabetes meal planning. Foods are categorized into three groups based on their nutritional content. Lists provide the serving sizes for carbohydrates, meat and meat alternatives, and fats. These lists allow for substitution for different groups to keep the nutritional content fixed.