also called urinalysis; a test of a urine sample to diagnose diseases of the urinary system and other body systems. In people with diabetes, a doctor may check for: Glucose, a sign of diabetes or other diseases; Protein, a sign of kidney damage, or nephropathy; White blood cells, a sign of urinary tract infection; Ketones, a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis or other conditions. Urine may also be checked for signs of bleeding. Some tests use a single urine sample. For others, 24-hour collection may be needed. And sometimes a sample is “cultured” to see exactly what type of bacteria grows.